USTER® STATISTICS 2018 FAQs

Content

 

1.      General Questions. 4

Question 1: What are the USTER® STATISTICS, and what are they used for?.. 4

Question 2: Where does the USTER® STATISTICS data come from?.. 4

Question 3: Can I look at the USTER® STATISTICS data from a particular country or region?.. 4

Question 4: Can I use the USTER® STATISTICS if my samples are tested on instruments that are not manufactured by USTER?   4

Question 5: What is the meaning of the abbreviations?.. 5

Question 6: What is the difference between CVw, CVb and CVt?.. 7

Question 7: Why are there Elastane results but no ‘Spantex’ or ‘Lycra’ results?.. 7

Question 8: Why are there Viscose results but no ‘Rayon’ results?.. 7

Question 9: Why are Twin spun yarns available but no SIRO yarns?.. 7

Question 10: Why do we call an Air jet yarn an Air jet yarn and not a Vortex or Com4 jet yarn?.. 7

Question 11: How can I compare different characteristics of the same yarn type from different instruments?   8

Question 12: How can I change or see the complete chart of a characteristic when I am in the interactive table view?   10

Question 13: Do the USTER® STATISTICS consider the type of cotton fiber used to produce a particular yarn?   11

Question 14: What is an USTER® STATISTICS USP™, and how do I determine it?.. 11

Question 15 : Is there an easy and quick way to get the USP™ values on the interactive charts?.. 12

Question 16: What is an acceptable USTER® STATISTICS USP™?.. 13

Question 17: Why is it so important to have a standard laboratory as well as standard temperature and humidity conditions for yarn and fiber testing?.. 13

Question 18: What are the sample sizes and instrument settings for yarn testing in the USTER® STATISTICS?   14

Question 19: Are U% mass evenness values available in the USTER® STATISTICS?.. 15

Question 20: What has changed in the USTER® STATISTICS 2018 compared to the USTER® STATISTICS 2013?   15

Question 21: How can the USTER® STATISTICS be viewed?.. 17

Question 22: The spaces between the chart lines are too narrow to interpret. Is it possible to get a better chart view?   17

Question 23: Why do my laptop and tablet show a different size of the charts?.. 18

Question 24: Can I change the settings to fit my needs or preferences?.. 18

Question 25: Can I use the USTER® STATISTICS if my device is not connected to the internet?.. 19

Question 26: Where can I see the app and data version?.. 19

Question 27: How can I update the data in the USTER® STATISTICS App?.. 20

Question 28: Can I save my own filter settings or search profiles and recall them as Favorites?.. 20

Question 29: How can I distinguish between the fiber, sliver, roving and yarn USTER® STATISTICS databases?   21

Question 30: Which filters do I use to find the USTER® STATISTICS data I need?.. 22

Question 31: Why is the selection of fiber fineness important?.. 23

Question 32: What kind of application definitions are available?.. 24

Question 33: Why does the “chapter structure” of the USTER® STATISTICS 2013 not exist anymore?   24

Question 34: How can I define a yarn blend?.. 25

Question 35: Do I know how many charts or tables are available depending on my filter selection?.. 26

Question 36: Where can I select an USTER® instrument and the corresponding quality characteristic?   27

Question 37: How can I change between different characteristics?.. 27

Question 38: How can I change between the chart and table view?.. 28

Question 39: Can I change the unit of measurement of a characteristics?.. 29

Question 40: How can I print my selection?.. 29

Question 41: What are the interactive tables, and how are they used?.. 30

Question 42: What is the meaning of “any”?.. 31

Question 43: What is the meaning of the orange triangle?.. 32

2.      Fiber Testing. 32

Question 44: Are USTER® STATISTICS  available for fiber testing for cotton/synthetic blends?.. 32

Question 45: Were the AFIS™ and HVI™ samples conditioned before USTER® STATISTICS testing?   33

Question 46: What do HVI™ UHML and AFIS™ UQL(w) mean?.. 33

Question 47: What is the difference between AFIS™ length measurements by number (n) and by weight (w) and which should I use?   33

Question 48: I only have the USTER® HVI. Can I evaluate HVI™ length data against the AFIS™ length data in the USTER® STATISTICS?   34

Question 49: What are the definitions of USTER® AFIS trash and dust?.. 35

Question 50: Can I evaluate my USTER® LVI data against the USTER® STATISTICS?.. 35

3.      Sliver Testing. 36

Question 51: How long should sliver be conditioned before it is run on the evenness tester?.. 36

Question 52: Can I use the USTER® STATISTICS to evaluate my USTER® online sliver monitoring systems?   36

4.      Roving Testing. 36

Question 53: How long should roving bobbins be conditioned before they are run on the evenness tester?   36

5.      Yarn Testing. 36

Question 54: Why are there separate USTER® STATISTICS databases for cops and packages?.. 36

Question 55: Why are there separate USTER® STATISTICS databases for knitting and weaving application and how are they determined?   37

Question 56: Can thermal conditioned (i.e. steamed) yarns be evaluated against the USTER® STATISTICS?   37

Question 57: What is the meaning of “Affected Share” in the CLASSIMAT 5 results?.. 37

Question 58: What do the range bars (candle sticks) on the USTER® STATISTICS for CLASSIMAT™ mean?   39

Question 59: Can I compare the data from my CLASSIMAT 2, 3, or CLASSIMAT QUANTUM to the USTER® STATISTICS?   40

Question 60: Are the number of CLASSIMAT™ faults influenced by the yarn count?.. 40

Question 61: What are HV tensile properties?.. 41

Question 62: Why is there a difference in test results between the USTER® TENSORAPID and USTER® TENSOJET?   41

Question 63: Is there a USTER® STATISTICS database for fancy yarns?.. 41

Question 64: Can I use the USTER® STATISTICS to evaluate the quality data from my on-line yarn monitoring systems such as USTER® QUANTUM?.. 41

Question 65: Which types of air jet yarns are in the USTER® STATISTICS?.. 42

Question 66: Is there a USTER® STATISTICS database for continuous filament yarns?.. 42

Question 67: Is there a USTER® STATISTICS database for core yarns?.. 42

6.      Processing view.. 42

Question 68: What are fiber processing USTER® STATISTICS and how are they used?.. 42

Question 69: Are there USTER® STATISTICS for fiber processing for cotton/synthetic blends?.. 43

 


 

1.     General Questions

Question 1: What are the USTER® STATISTICS, and what are they used for?

The USTER® STATISTICS are the global benchmarking tool based on the global collection and testing of fiber, sliver, roving, and yarn samples that have been produced in every part of the world. The STATISTICS were first introduced in 1957 and are periodically updated. The USTER® STATISTICS are recognized throughout the global textile industry as an essential tool for comparing key characteristics along the entire yarn production chain, from raw fiber, sliver, roving, and yarn.

The USTER® STATISTICS haves three main user groups:

·         Yarn producers – To set internal quality goals, identify performance gaps, communicate quality in an objective manner, and guarentee the quality of the yarn being produced and sold.

·         Yarn users – To provide a basis for determining yarn quality specifications (yarn profiles) in contracts, selecting yarns of appropriate quality, optimize the portfolio of suppliers, pay the right price for the right quality.

·         Machine manufactures – To evaluate new machines developments, linking productivity with quality and guaranteeing specific quality levels. The USTER® STATISTICS are also used as a basis of quality contracts between machine manufacturers and new spinning mills.

 

 

Question 2: Where does the USTER® STATISTICS data come from?

The USTER® STATISTICS are truly a global undertaking; samples are collected from spinning mills from all over the world. To ensure the integrity of the data, the samples are tested at only two locations with fully conditioned laboratories; in the USTER laboratory in USTER, Switzerland, and in the USTER laboratory in Suzhou, China.

One of the new features of the USTER® STATISTICS 2018 is data for sliver and roving evenness. Due to the difficulty in transporting these sample types without damage to our laboratories for testing, customer data was used instead. The customer data comes from the USTER® TESTER 5 and USTER® TESTER 6 of USTER® evenness testers. This data is analyzed, and then incorporated into the USTER® STATISTICS.

 

 

Question 3: Can I look at the USTER® STATISTICS data from a particular country or region?

No, the USTER® STATISTICS are designed to be a global benchmark. As the world moves more and more towards a global economy, global benchmarks have become ever more important.

 

 

Question 4: Can I use the USTER® STATISTICS if my samples are tested on instruments that are not manufactured by USTER?

No, for the following reasons:

 

USTER goes through great efforts in the manufacturing, calibration, and maintenance of our equipment to ensure the accuracy and precision of our instruments. The graphic below shows a comparison between the USTER® TESTER 6 and the instruments of three other manufacturers (A, B, C) in measuring the mass evenness of a 100 % cotton 20 tex (Ne 30) yarn. The graphic clearly shows the superior performance of the USTER instrument over the instruments of other manufacturers with respect to measurement variation:

 

 

 

1.     Manufacturer A evenness tester accuracy

2.     Manufacturer B evenness tester accuracy

3.     Manufacturer C evenness tester accuracy

4.     USTER® TESTER accuracy

5.     Mean competitor accuracy

 

Since USTER® instruments have to provide the same quality values over a long period of time and from across instrument generations, the manufacture of each USTER® instrument can be traced back to a master gauge that has been kept securely at USTER for decades.

 

Finally, there are some quality measurements in the USTER® STATISTICS that are unique to USTER® instruments only; these include:

·         USTER® TENSOJET

·         USTER® TESTER 5,6 (OH, OM, OI, HL* Modules)

·         USTER® CLASSIMAT 5

·         USTER® AFIS

·         USTER® HVI

 

* USTER® TESTER 6 only

 

 

Question 5: What is the meaning of the abbreviations?

 

 

 

Question 6: What is the difference between CVw, CVb and CVt?

The calculation of the Coefficient of Variation can be based on different principles.

The variation of the yarn package is called CVw - variation within – if, for example, 50 strength tests are carried out on each of 10 yarn packages. The variation is shown as CVb variation between, i.e. between the package, if the mean values of the strength of all packages are compared with each other. The variation is Variaton total – CVt - if all breaks of all packages are considered as a whole. This distinction is important because the size of the number depends on the amount of breaks considered. Basically, there is this differentiation in yarn count measurement and in twist measurement.

 

 

Question 7: Why are there Elastane results but no ‘Spantex’ or ‘Lycra’ results?

Elastane is the generic term for all elastic mono- or multi-filaments which are usually inserted as the core in core yarns.Some brand names are so popular that the generic term has taken a back seat. USTER cannot guarantee that an elastane from a particular manufacturer has been used. For this reason, USTER uses exclusively the term specified in the ISO standard and assumes its neutral position accordingly.    

 

 

Question 8: Why are there Viscose results but no ‘Rayon’ results?

Viscose belongs to the regenerated cellulose fibres. According to the ISO standard, three yarn types, i.e. Lyocell (CLY), Modal (CMD) and Viscose (CV), belong to this category. In the United States, it often happens that no distinction is made between these three fiber types, and all three yarn types are called Rayon. The brand name Rayon is so popular in the United States that the generic term has been pushed in the background. USTER cannot guarantee that a Cellolosic fiber from a particular manufacturer has been used. For this reason, USTER uses exclusively the term specified in the ISO standard and assumes its neutral position accordingly.

 

 

Question 9: Why are Twin spun yarns available but no SIRO yarns?

SIRO is a brand name of Suessen. There are several other machine manufacturers which also offer systems for ring spinning machines to produce yarns of the Twin Spun Yarn type. Some brand names are so popular that the generic term is not commonly used anymore. USTER cannot guarantee that a yarn has been produced on a SIRO system. For this reason, USTER uses only the standardized term and assumes its neutral position accordingly.

 

 

Question 10: Why do we call an Air jet yarn an Air jet yarn and not a Vortex or Com4 jet yarn?

Vortex is the brand name of Murata and Com4 jet is the brand name of Rieter. The generic term is an Air jet yarn. Some brand names are so popular that the generic term is not used much anymore. USTER cannot guarantee that a yarn has been produced on a Vortex or Com4 jet system. For this reason, USTER uses only generic terms and assumes its neutral position accordingly.

 

 

Question 11: How can I compare different characteristics of the same yarn type from different instruments?

Select the yarn type you would like to consider on the first filter level (1). Click on show results (2). Select Characteristics list and activate requested characteristics (3). Confirm the selection (4). Two charts or tables are available – indicated with the arrow (5) - if you have chosen two characteristics. Print out the view or change between the two selections in order to compare the results.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Question 12: How can I change or see the complete chart of a characteristic when I am in the interactive table view?

When you look at the interactive table,  click exactly on the name of the characteristic (1). The chart view will open automatically. You can use the slider function or generate a print-out. If you would like to leave this view, you have to click on the X (3) and you will be directly guided back to the Interactive Table.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Question 13: Do the USTER® STATISTICS consider the type of cotton fiber used to produce a particular yarn?

No. Like machine settings, raw material selection is a very important process variable that will influence yarn quality. Yarn application must be considered to determine the proper raw material selection. One exception is fiber staple length which is considered when combed yarns are analyzed. Generally speaking, longer fibers are required as yarn counts become finer. The interactive yarn quality chart of yarn CVm below shows a break of the USP™ lines at approximately Ne 45. Yarn counts that are coarser than Ne 45 were spun from medium length fibers, whereas the yarns finer than Ne 45 were spun from longer fibers.

 

 

 

 

 

Question 14: What is an USTER® STATISTICS USP™, and how do I determine it?

The USP™, USTER® STATISTICS Percentile, is the resulting value when a particular characteristic is benchmarked against a USTER® STATISTICS database. A certain percentage of the global production will fall below the USP™, and a certain percentage will fall above the USP™. This relationship is shown in the interactive yarn chart for CVm below:

 

 

 

 

In the chart above, the CVm values for an Ne 20 (30 tex) 100 % carded cotton ring spun cop yarn for weaving are displayed for the 5, 25, 50, 75, and 95 % USP™ lines. For example, the 25 % USP™ CVm value is 13.70 %. This means that 25 % of the world production of this particular yarn had CVm values lower than 13.70 % and 75 % of the world production had CVm values higher than 13.70 %.

 

 

Question 15 : Is there an easy and quick way to get the USP™ values on the interactive charts?

Yes. A double click on the chart opens an enlarged view of the individual chart. The blue circle is a slider tool. Move the blue circle to the desired yarn, sliver, or roving count at the bottom of the chart (x-axis). As soon as the slider is in the region of the USP™ lines, a text box shows the corresponding values (y axis) of all the USP levels (red lines). The interactive yarn chart below shows this procedure.

 

 

 

 

Question 16: What is an acceptable USTER® STATISTICS USP™?

First and foremost, it is extremely important to remember that it is the end use, and not the USP™, that determines if a yarn is of acceptable quality. The USTER® STATISTICS should not be interpreted as saying 5 % is always “good”, or that 95 % is always “bad”. For example, a 5 % hairiness USP™ may be perfectly acceptable for a weaving warp yarn, but unacceptable for a knitting yarn where cover and softness are desired. Also, the 5 % line might be indicative of high cost, high price, and luxuriousness – even a tendency to price oneself out of the market. In contrast, the 95 % line may be indicative of a very attractive price and just the right quality for a particular target market. Some characteristics such as count variation (CVcb), evenness variation between cops or cones (CVmb), hairiness variation between cops or cones (CVHB), etc., are generally absolute in nature. In other words, the lower these values, the better they are, regardless of the end use applications. It is also important to note that some characteristics have an opposite effect on each other,  for example, increasing yarn tensile strength may reduce yarn elongation.

 

 

Question 17: Why is it so important to have a standard laboratory as well as standard temperature and humidity conditions for yarn and fiber testing?

Some textile fibers are highly hygroscopic and their properties change notably as a result of their moisture content. Typical hygroscopic fibers are cotton, wool, viscose, silk, flax, etc. Moisture content is particularly critical in the case of tensile properties, such as yarn tenacity, elongation, and work-to-break. Yarn evenness, imperfections, defect levels, and count are also affected by moisture content. Consequently, conditioning and testing must be carried out under constant standard atmospheric conditions if accurate and consistent results are to be obtained. If materials are not tested under standard laboratory conditions, accurate comparisons cannot be made to the other testing locations and to the USTER® STATISTICS. The following figures clearly show the impact on the breaking force and elongation properties of various fiber types as the relative humidity changes from the standard level of 65 %.

 

 

 

The impact of Relative Humidity on Breaking Force

1.     Deviation of the force (%)

2.     Relative Humidity, RH (%)

3.     Cotton

4.     Wool/Slik

5.     Acetate

6.     Viscose

7.     Linen

8.     Polyamide

9.     Polyester

 

 

The standard temperature atmosphere for textile testing according to ISO 139 involves a temperature of (20 ± 2) °C ((68 ± 4) °F) and (65 ± 4) % relative humidity (corresponding ASTM D1776). The standard alternative atmospheres according to ISO 139 should have a temperature of (23 ± 2) °C ((73.4 ± 4) °F) and a relative humidity of (50 ± 4) %. An alternative atmosphere may be used only if the parties involved agree on its use. Prior to testing, the samples must be conditioned under constant standard atmospheric conditions until they have reached moisture equilibrium with the surrounding air. To attain the moisture equilibrium, a conditioning time of at least 24 hours is required, 48 hours is preferred. For samples with a high moisture content (thermally conditioned yarns), conditioning time should be at least 48 hours.

 

 

Question 18: What are the sample sizes and instrument settings for yarn testing in the USTER® STATISTICS?

The table below shows the sample sizes, instrument settings, and test lengths (if applicable) for USTER® STATISTICS yarn testing.

 

 

 

·         Number of subsamples

·         Number of tests within

·         Testing speed

·         Evaluation time (if applicable)

·         Tested length

·         Cops

·         Packages

·         N/A

 

 

 

Question 19: Are U% mass evenness values available in the USTER® STATISTICS?

No. The CVm (Coefficient of Variation, mass) is the only characteristic term that is used to describe overall mass evenness in the USTER® STATISTICS. The CVm is a more accurate measure of mass variations than U%, and has therefore replaced U% in the USTER® STATISTICS.

 

 

Question 20: What has changed in the USTER® STATISTICS 2018 compared to the USTER® STATISTICS 2013?

The Uster Statistic 2018 contains more than 3,700 charts.  The following characteristics are new compared to 2013

          UT product/ chart type

          Material state group/type

          Characteristic

 

 

 

Blend ratio in 1 % steps possible, a huge extension of blend ratio.

 

 

          Raw material

          Specific availbale blend ratio

          Blend ratio range

          Steps possible to enter

          Material state type

          Carded

          Combed

          Any process

          Cop

          Package

 

 

 

Aditionally, the  following extentions are realized:

          Yarn Count Range extensions

          PES/CO, ring yarn, combed, cop and packages: New Ne 50 to Ne 60

          PES/WO, worsted yarn, combed, packages: New Ne 47 to Ne 60

          New yarn types

          New Twin Spun yarn, 100% CO, 100% CV with cops and packages

          New materials

          New Classimat 5, 100% PES, 100 CV%, PES/CO Blends (no Quantum anymore)

          Fiber Fineness

          New separated in <= 1.0 dtex, > 1.0 dtex for Modal or any fineness

          Fabric application

          Beside knitting, weaving, new: any application, especially for cotton blends

          Process type

          Beside carded and combed, new: any process

          Interactive table with additional characteristics

          Beside top classes new all outliers, Yarn BodyTM und dense areas as well as all affective shares

 

 

Question 21: How can the USTER® STATISTICS be viewed?

There are three different possibilities to view the USTER® STATISTICS:

·         Interactive table

·         Chart and table

·         Processing

 

 

 

·         Interactive table

·         Chart and table

·         Processing

 

 

 

Question 22: The spaces between the chart lines are too narrow to interpret. Is it possible to get a better chart view?

Yes, if your device supports a higher resolution, you can improve the visibility of the charts. It is important to note that the quality of the display depends upon the user device and not the USTER® STATISTICS App. Try to adjust the display resolution of your device as shown below if you are not satisfied with the display.

 

 

 

With 1366´768 Resolution - Poor display, very little space between the USP lines and very crowded y-axis values.

 

 

With 1920´1200 Resolution – Much better display on the same device with a different resolution setting.

 

 

 

Question 23: Why do my laptop and tablet show a different size of the charts?

The size of the charts depends on the screen resolution of your device. Use the device resolution setting that provides the most comfortable and easy to use display.

 

 

Question 24: Can I change the settings to fit my needs or preferences?

Yes, it is possible to change the following settings:

·         Language

·         A default view – charts or tables

·         Preferred units

 

 

 

·         Language

·         Default view type

·         Unit settings

·         FAQ

·         Contact us

·         Update Statistics Data

·         Statistics data are up to date

·         App version

·         User profile

·         License Agreement

·         Privacy Policy

 

 

 

Question 25: Can I use the USTER® STATISTICS if my device is not connected to the internet?

Yes, this is possible. All USTER® STATISTICS data are available even if your device is not connected to the internet.

 

 

Question 26: Where can I see the app and data version?

You can find the information in Settings.

 

 

 

·         Update Statistics Data

·         Statistics data are up to date

·         App version

 

 

 

Question 27: How can I update the data in the USTER® STATISTICS App?

Once you have closed or logged out of the USTER® STATISTICS App, it is automatically updated when you reopen or log back in the next time.

 

 

Question 28: Can I save my own filter settings or search profiles and recall them as Favorites?

Yes. Wherever the “Save” Icon is located, you can save the filter or search profile settings that you are currently using. You can give a specific name to the Favorite and recall it with the following icon:

 

 

 

·         Save Icon

·         Favorite Icon

 

 

New: A new query gets started

Last: The last query gets recalled

Individually saved profile name

You can see at the icon which view the query is considering. Charts and tables, processing or interactive table.

 

 

·         Favorite (Filter profile)

·         New

·         Last

 

 

 

Question 29: How can I distinguish between the fiber, sliver, roving and yarn USTER® STATISTICS databases?

The material stage is the first filter criteria in the chart, table, and interactive table views. The processing view has a different first filter.

 

 

 

·         New query

·         Fiber

·         Sliver

·         Roving

·         Yarn

 

 

 

Question 30: Which filters do I use to find the USTER® STATISTICS data I need?

It is not important which filter is set first on the second filter level. USTER provides an order which is most often used in the industry. The filters are only shown if a selection is available. It is possible that a particular filter criteria is displayed in one selection level, but is not displayed at another level. The following outline shows the different filter levels:

1.     Raw material

·         Type

·         Blend ratio

·         Fiber fineness

·         £ 1.0 dtex

·         > 1.0 dtex

·         Any fineness

·         Process type

·         Combed

·         Carded

·         Any process

2.     Material state type

·         Depending on the first filter level you can make a selection

·         E.g. yarn

·         Ring yarn

·         Compact yarn

·         Rotor yarn

·         Air jet yarn

·         Plied yarn

·         Core yarn

·         Worsted yarn

3.     Material state form

·         E.g. yarn

·         Cop

·         Package

4.     Fabric application

·         Yarn only

·         Knitting

·         Weaving

·         Any application

 

 

 

 

 

Question 31: Why is the selection of fiber fineness important?

The new filter criteria for fiber fineness is mostly important for synthetic fibers. Currently, you can select fiber fineness with the following filters:

·         £ 1.0 dtex

·         > 1.0 dtex

·         Any fineness

Yarn quality characteristics can be influenced by fiber fineness. With the publication of the USTER® STATISTICS 2018, USTER now has more data so that yarns spun from 100 % synthetic fibers can be evaluated using fiber fineness as a filter criterion.

 

 

 

 

 

Question 32: What kind of application definitions are available?

Different application selections are available depending on the first filter level,.

·         Fiber:

·         Here, no application areas are defined for the next intermediate step

·         Sliver and roving:

·         Here, yarn applications can be defined, but no fabric applications. Always only the next process step can be defined.    

·         Yarn:

·         Here, it is possible to define a fabric application.

In general it is always important to define the end-use of the textile good by evaluating a quality characteristic of a sliver, roving or a yarn. Whether a characteristic is good or bad always depends on the end application. For this reason USTER offers a selection of application areas depending on the material stage.

 

 

Question 33: Why does the “chapter structure” of the USTER® STATISTICS 2013 not exist anymore?

The chapter function had a certain limitation for the filter possibility. A chapter contained the description of the raw material, material state, blend ratio and application. A separation of one of these criteria was not possible. The overview of the selection was limited so that USTER came to the conclusion to make the USTER® STATISTICS 2018 more flexible for the user and changed from a chapter structure to an individual filter system.

 

 

Question 34: How can I define a yarn blend?

There has been a huge increase in the popularity of blend yarns in the market, and this increase is reflected in the new USTER® STATISTICS. The USTER® STATISTICS 2018 include a wider range of blends.

To define a blend yarn for evaluation in the USTER® STATISTICS, simply select the raw material type (1). Use the “+” icon (2) to add a selection field for the second raw material type. Depending on the selected raw material type, a range of available blend ratios is shown. Enter the blend ratio into the field (3). The range indication (4) is marked in red if you have entered a ratio which is outside the range. You can select the process type (5), and if available, also a fiber fineness per raw material. If you would like to delete a raw material type you can use the “-“ icon (6) in order to return to a 100 % level.

 

 

 

 

 

·         Yarn

·         Raw material

o    Modal

·         Process Type

o    Carded

·         Cotton

o    Combed

 

 

 

Question 35: Do I know how many charts or tables are available depending on my filter selection?

Yes, after applying the first filter level, the number of available charts and tables will be displayed as shown below:

 

 

 

·         Show results

 

 

The number of available charts and tables automatically updates as different filters are applied.

 

 

Question 36: Where can I select an USTER® instrument and the corresponding quality characteristic?

After clicking on the “Show results” Icon, you are at the third filter level. At this level, you can change between the USTER® instrument and the associated quality characteristics. You can also select more than one quality characteristic per USTER® instrument. A headline indicates what the displayed chart or table contains.

 

 

 

 

 

Question 37: How can I change between different characteristics?

This is fast and easy. Use the swipe function on your device touch screen, or use the arrow left < or right > functions to change between charts and tables.

 

 

 

 

 

Question 38: How can I change between the chart and table view?

It is very fast and easy to change from chart to table view. Use the “Toggle” Icon (shown by the red arrow in the figure below) to change between a table or chart view of the current selection. If you prefer a table or a chart view as your default display, you can set a preferred view with the general settings/default view. The fast view change possibility is always available even if you set the default settings. The default view will be displayed again with the next app entry.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Question 39: Can I change the unit of measurement of a characteristics?

Yes. If more than one unit of measurement of a characteristics is available, then the unit of measurement is highlighted in blue. If you click on the measurement unit, a chart with a different unit of measurement will be displayed. If more than two units of measurement are available, click on the unit of measurement again, and a chart with the new unit of measurement will be displayed.

 

 

 

 

 

Question 40: How can I print my selection?

Click on the “Print” icon. Then all charts or tables of the selection are printed as a PDF document. The PDF document can be stored, sent via email or printed.  

 

 

 

 

 

Question 41: What are the interactive tables, and how are they used?

The USTER® STATISTICS 2018 interactive tables show the USP™ of multiple characteristics simultaneously. There are interactive tables available for all material processing stages. The figure below shows an interactive table for yarn:

 

 

 

1.     On Filter Level 2, select the appropriate material description criteria. Otherwise the next step will not be possible.

2.     Select the yarn count to be evaluated.

3.     Enter a USP™ level between 5 and 95 % for all available characteristics;

→ the values are displayed.

4.     If a characteristic group should have an individual USP™ level, enter the USP™ value in the field beside the group name

→ the values of the group are changed.

5.     If an individual characteristic should have an individual USP™ level, go into the colored field and enter the needed value.

6.     If an individual value should be changed to get the USP™ level calculated, go to the field and enter the value in

→ the USP™ value is calculated.

 

 

 

Question 42: What is the meaning of “any”?

Some filter criteria may have the selection possibility “any….”. For example, “any fineness” or end use “any application”. In this case, charts were created from data where the fiber fineness or application was not known so that other valid data could be used. The figure below shows an example of the “any application” (1) option with respect to fabric type.

 

 

 

Example fabric application

·         Knitting

·         Weaving

·         Any application

 

 

The function “all” means that no filter criterion for the selection is set, therefore all charts and tables are displayed. In contrast to the “all” function, the “any” function displays only the charts and tables where certain parameters (e.g. knitting or weaving) have not been defined.

 

 

Question 43: What is the meaning of the orange triangle?

The triangle indicates that the data are provisional and that there were not enough samples for the publication. The provisional data can be used. The USTER® STATISTICS will be updated as soon as enough data will be available.

 

 

 

·         Provisional

 

 

 

 

2.     Fiber Testing

Question 44: Are USTER® STATISTICS  available for fiber testing for cotton/synthetic blends?

No, the USTER® STATISTICS cover 100 % cotton only.

 

 

Question 45: Were the AFIS™ and HVI™ samples conditioned before USTER® STATISTICS testing?

Yes, it is extremely important that fiber samples are allowed to acclimate in a properly conditioned laboratory at (20 ± 2) °C ((68 ± 4) °F) and (65 ± 4) % relative humidity, for at least 24 hours prior to testing. Results will be affected if the fiber samples are not properly conditioned prior to AFIS™ and HVI™ testing since the strength of most fibers is affected by moisture content, fiber strength, length, length uniformity, and short fiber.

 

 

Question 46: What do HVI™ UHML and AFIS™ UQL(w) mean?

The HVI UHML means Upper Half Mean Length value of a cotton sample. The UHML is the HVI length measurement which corresponds to the classers’ staple length of a cotton sample. The AFIS UQL(w) means the Upper Quartile Length by weight of a sample. The UQL is the average length calculated by the AFIS of the longest 25 % of the fibers in a sample based on fiber weight. The AFIS UQL is used to correlate to the HVI UHML and the classers’ staple length.

 

 

Question 47: What is the difference between AFIS™ length measurements by number (n) and by weight (w) and which should I use?

The AFIS™ length measurements by number (n) are based on the actual measurements of the individual fibers in a sample (3,000 fibers are measured for length per test) and, therefore, represent the true length properties of the fibers. The length by number values should be used to analyze machine performance, determine maintenance schedules, and optimize machine settings (for example, the L(n) 5 % value to determine proper roll spacings in the drawing process). The length by weight values are calculated and are purposely biased towards the longer (i.e. heavier) fibers in the sample.  Since length by weight values are biased toward the longer fibers, the influence of the shorter fibers in the length calculations are reduced. As a result of this weight bias, the length by weight values are always longer than the length by number values. The length by weight values are used to correlate with bundle fiber length measurements such as the HVI, which in turn match to the classers’ staple length. The picture below shows the difference in the influence of the short fibers in the length by number and length by weight calculations.

 

 

 

·         By number

·         By weight

·         Fibers

·         Short fibers

 

 

 

Question 48: I only have the USTER® HVI. Can I evaluate HVI™ length data against the AFIS™ length data in the USTER® STATISTICS?

No, the USTER® HVI and USTER® AFIS measure fiber length differently so that the two length measurements cannot be used interchangeably. The HVI™ tests a randomly clamped fiber bundle; the fiber length values are calculated from a non-end aligned staple diagram of the fiber bundle as shown in the figure below:

 

 

 

1.     Fiber length axis

2.     Fibrogram

3.     Upper half mean length (UHML)

4.     Mean fiber length

5.     Percentage of fibers axis

 

 

In contrast to measuring a fiber bundle sample like the HVI, the AFIS measures individual fibers to determine fiber length data. The fiber staple diagram below shows how the AFIS length data is determined.

 

 

 

1.     Fiber length axis

2.     Short fiber content (n, w)

3.     Percentage of fiber axis

 

 

It is important to note that the HVI and AFIS have two different and distinct purposes: 

·         Data from the USTER® HVI is used for fiber selection and bale management. 

·         Data from the USTER® AFIS is used for machine process optimization.

 

 

Question 49: What are the definitions of USTER® AFIS trash and dust?

The USTER® AFIS trash and dust definitions are based on the definitions of The International Textile Manufacturers Federation (ITMF). The ITMF defines any particles larger than 500 µmas trash. The figure below shows the ITMF definitions for various particle sizes:

 

 

 

1.     Respirable Dust

2.     Micro Dust

3.     Dust (ITMF definition)

4.     Dust (USTER® AFIS measurement)

5.     Trash (ITMF definition)

6.     Trash (USTER® AFIS measurement)

 

 

 

Question 50: Can I evaluate my USTER® LVI data against the USTER® STATISTICS?

Yes, if the samples are properly conditioned and tested under the same standard laboratory conditions (ISO 139, ASTM D1776) like material for the testing of the USTER® STATISTICS. LVI nep data can be evaluated against the USTER® STATISTICS from USTER® AFIS. LVI length, color, trash, and micronaire data can be evaluated against the USTER® STATISTICS from USTER® HVI.

 

 

 

3.     Sliver Testing

Question 51: How long should sliver be conditioned before it is run on the evenness tester?

Sliver should be tested as soon as possible after being brought into the laboratory. Also, it is very important to follow proper sliver collection and evenness tester thread up and guiding procedures to get the most accurate evenness results. Refer to your evenness tester operations manual for recommended sliver thread up and guiding procedures.

 

 

Question 52: Can I use the USTER® STATISTICS to evaluate my USTER® online sliver monitoring systems?

No, not directly. The Sliver STATISTICS data comes from offline laboratory evenness testing. Although the online and offline results should correlate, they will not be the same for the following reasons:

·         The online and offline sensors are different and use different measuring principles.

·         The laboratory tester evenness results are influenced by the machine coiler and possibly the calender rolls, whereas the online systems are not influenced by these components due to the location of the measurement sensors.

·         Material test direction is different

·         Sample lengths are different

·         Environmental conditions between the plant and laboratory are different.

 

 

 

4.     Roving Testing

Question 53: How long should roving bobbins be conditioned before they are run on the evenness tester?

Roving should be tested as soon as possible after being brought into the laboratory. Also, it is very important to follow proper roving evenness tester thread up and guiding procedures to get the most accurate evenness results. Refer to your evenness tester operations manual for recommended roving thread up procedures.

 

 

 

5.     Yarn Testing

Question 54: Why are there separate USTER® STATISTICS databases for cops and packages?

The winding process significantly changes some yarn quality characteristics, most notably yarn imperfections and hairiness. Yarn imperfections and hairiness can increase significantly after winding due to high speed yarn removal from the cop and the numerous contact points on the winding machine. The amount of increase depends on several variables such as fiber type, winding speed, winder manufacturer, and condition of the winder. Another variable between cop and package yarn is that the yarn direction is reversed. This can affect the surface structure of some delicate 100 % synthetic yarns, core yarns, and 100 % cotton yarns finer than Ne 60 (Nm 100, 10 tex). Yarn elongation could be reduced due to excessively high winding tensions, and single-end yarn strength can be affected by the number and quality of the yarn splices. In addition, cone yarn is usually cleared of seldom-occurring faults, whereas cop yarn has not been cleared.

Important note: For evenness testing of yarn counts finer than Ne 60 (Nm 100, 10 tex), the yarn should be threaded through the outside tensioner eyelet and not through the tensioner discs as is the case with heavier yarns. Please refer to the evenness tester operations manual for additional information on this point.

 

 

Question 55: Why are there separate USTER® STATISTICS databases for knitting and weaving application and how are they determined?

Because their end uses demand different, and sometimes opposing, quality characteristics. It is essential that knitting and weaving yarns have their own separate USTER® STATISTICS databases. When properly tailored to the anticipated end use, yarns will exhibit inherent strengths and weaknesses: As opposed to weaving yarns, for instance, knitting yarns produced from cotton, man-made fibers, or blends thereof are spun at low twist multipliers. Knitting yarns will rarely display a high breaking tenacity, and if they did, it would probably result in stiff, harsh fabrics. A somewhat lower breaking tenacity must also be expected from knitting yarns spun from low-tenacity or pill-resistant man-made fibers which are specifically designed for that purpose. Such low-tenacity fibers, however, usually result in excellent yarn elongation. Knitting yarns also possess a higher hairiness. Such quality characteristics would be detrimental to weaving yarns, but give knitted fabrics greater cover and a softer hand.

 

For the USTER® STATISTICS, the threshold between weaving and knitting ring spun yarns was determined by the level of yarn twist:

·         Combed 100 % cotton ring spun yarns with a twist multiple of 3.7 αe (112 αm) or higher were defined as weaving yarns. Yarns below this twist multiple were defined as knitting yarns

·         Carded 100 % cotton ring spun yarns with a twist multiple of 3.9 αe (119 αm) or higher were defined as weaving yarns. Yarns below this twist multiple were defined as knitting yarns

 

Since rotor yarn twist cannot be measured, those spinning mills that supplied rotor yarn samples to the USTER® STATISTICS were asked to provide the end use application (weaving or knitting).

 

 

Question 56: Can thermal conditioned (i.e. steamed) yarns be evaluated against the USTER® STATISTICS?

Incorrect comparisons with the USTER® STATISTICS can result from testing actively conditioned (steamed) yarns. The resulting moisture regain of the fibers may alter their physical properties and affect capacitive yarn testing. In addition, the moisture is not always homogeneously distributed within a steamed cop or package. As a result of the uneven moisture distribution, changes in tenacity, elongation, and work-to-break as well as evenness, imperfections, and defect levels must be expected. The cop and package samples tested for the USTER® STATISTICS have been cleared of all packing material upon receipt, preconditioned in a dry atmosphere for several days or weeks, and conditioned to moisture equilibrium under constant standard atmospheric conditions. By doing so, any effects on testing caused by thermal conditioning are completely eliminated.

 

 

Question 57: What is the meaning of “Affected Share” in the CLASSIMAT 5 results?

In an USTER® CLASSIMAT 5 test, the outlier limits for the measured characteristics of CVm, imperfections (standard and sensitive settings), and hairiness are automatically defined. The lengths of yarn where the characteristics measurements fall outside of the outlier limits are defined as “affected”. The “Affected Share” is the percentage of the yarn from the total USTER® CLASSIMAT 5 sample test length that was outside of characteristics outlier limits.  For example, if 2 km of yarn of a 200 km CLASSIMAT test were affected due to outlier CVm measurements, then the “Affected Share” % would be 1.0 %:

 

 

 

·         Affected share length

·         Total test length

 

 

In the figure below, the total percentage “Affected Share” due to imperfections is 2.0 %:

 

 

 

·         Quality outliers

·         Parameter

·         Range

·         Affected share

·         52 weeks

·         Evenness

·         Imperfections

·         Hairiness

 

 

The USTER® CLASSIMAT 5 also reports “Affected Share” of yarn that is affected by periodic faults.

The USTER® STATISTICS 2018 CLASSIMAT 5 chart below shows the USP™ range for the total “Affected Share” percentage of a test.

 

 

 

 

 

Question 58: What do the range bars (candle sticks) on the USTER® STATISTICS for CLASSIMAT™ mean?

Each candle represents the 5%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 95% USP value (see picture below). There is a range bar for each class of CLASSIMAT™ faults (standard classes). CLASSIMAT™ results, like imperfections, can be highly variable, especially if the number of faults is very low. The high variability in fault count is the reason for the wide bands on the range bars. The top and bottom of the wide bands are not identical to the 25th and 75th USP™ and the middle of the band should not be considered as the 50th USP™. Defect counts that fall within the wide red bands should be interpreted as being more or less the same and falling somewhere between the 25th and 75th USP™.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Question 59: Can I compare the data from my CLASSIMAT 2, 3, or CLASSIMAT QUANTUM to the USTER® STATISTICS?

No. The current CLASSIMAT USTER® STATISTICS results are now only from the CLASSIMAT 5. The CLASSIMAT 5 sensors are significantly more advanced and accurate than earlier generations, so the direct comparisons of results between the different generations of Classimats cannot be made in the current USTER® STATISTICS.

 

 

Question 60: Are the number of CLASSIMAT™ faults influenced by the yarn count?

Yes, the number of CLASSIMAT faults are influenced by the yarn count. The CLASSIMAT USTER® STATISTICS results are divided into three broad count ranges as shown in the table below:

 

 

·         Desciption

·         Coarse

·         Medium

·         Fine

·         Count range

 

 

 

Question 61: What are HV tensile properties?

HV is the abbreviation for High Volume and refers to the tensile results from the USTER® TENSOJET, which due to its high testing speed of 400 m/min (up to 30,000 tests/hour), is defined as a high volume tensile tester.

 

 

Question 62: Why is there a difference in test results between the USTER® TENSORAPID and USTER® TENSOJET?

Like all modern single-end tensile testers, the USTER® TENSORAPID and USTER® TENSOJET use the CRE (constant rate of extension) measurement principle to test samples. The reason that the instruments give different results is due to the difference in testing speed.  In the USTER® STATISTICS, samples were tested at 5m/minute on the TENSORAPID™ and 400m/minute on the TENSOJET™. In tensile testing, testing speed can have a significant influence on strength and elongation because of the physics involved in breaking the yarn. In fact, differences in test results can be seen within the TENSORAPID™ and TENSOJET™ if the same sample is tested at different speeds. A general rule states, the higher the testing speed, the higher the strength and the lower the elongation. The amount of influence caused by the tensile testing speed mostly depends upon the fiber type and yarn spinning system. When comparing to the USTER® STATISTICS, it is extremely important that your instrument test parameters, test speed, clamp distance (TENSORAPID™ only), and pre-tension settings are the same as those used in the USTER® STATISTICS

Special Note: Although the TENSORAPID™ and TENSOJET™ report different strength and elongation values, the correlation between the two instruments is extremely good. As a result of the high correlation, the TENSOJET™ has a UTRexp feature in which the corresponding TENSORAPID™ results from a TENSOJET™ test are predicted.

 

 

Question 63: Is there a USTER® STATISTICS database for fancy yarns?

No. It is not possible to have an USTER® STATISTICS database for fancy yarns because each fancy yarn design will produce a different set of quality values. As a result of these differences, it is not possible to benchmark fancy yarns.

 

 

Question 64: Can I use the USTER® STATISTICS to evaluate the quality data from my on-line yarn monitoring systems such as USTER® QUANTUM?

No. The USTER® STATISTICS are used to benchmark laboratory testing results only. Due to the differences in measuring sensors, measurement environment, sample size, testing speed, and material direction, it is not possible to use the USTER® STATISTICS to evaluate the quality data from your on-line yarn monitoring systems.

 

 

Question 65: Which types of air jet yarns are in the USTER® STATISTICS?

Murata MVS (Vortex) and Rieter Com4® jet yarns are included in the USTER® STATISTICS.

 

 

Question 66: Is there a USTER® STATISTICS database for continuous filament yarns?

No. It is not possible to have a USTER® STATISTICS database for continuous filament yarns because of the wide range of yarn constructions which dictate different instrument settings to achieve optimal measurement results. For these reasons, it is not possible to benchmark continuous filament yarns.

 

 

Question 67: Is there a USTER® STATISTICS database for core yarns?

Yes, there is a USTER® STATISTICS database for core yarns.

 

 

 

6.     Processing view

Question 68: What are fiber processing USTER® STATISTICS and how are they used?

The USTER® STATISTICS Cotton fiber processing section is chart-based on the statistical analyses of USTER® AFIS measurements from 100 % cotton bales, card mat, card sliver, comber sliver, finisher drawing and roving. The measured AFIS™ fiber characteristics are neps, seed coat neps, short fiber content (by number), trash particles, dust particles, and VFM (Visible Foreign Matter).  Below is a fiber processing chart of AFIS™ neps:

 

 

 

·         Bale

·         Card mat

·         Card sliver

·         Finisher sliver

·         Roving

 

 

In the chart above, a card sliver with 75 neps/gram will fall on the 50th Percentile of the fiber processing statistics, i.e. 50 % of the tested samples had nep levels higher than 75 neps/gram and 50 % of the samples had nep levels lower than 75 neps/gram. The Fiber USTER® STATISTICS for processing allow the user to evaluate the input/output machine performance at each of the mill fiber processing stages. It is important to note that machine settings, machine condition, mill practices, maintenance schedules, and fiber selection will affect machine performance.

 

 

Question 69: Are there USTER® STATISTICS for fiber processing for cotton/synthetic blends?

No, the USTER® STATISTICS for fiber processing cover 100 % cotton only.